Terminology

AES
AES is the abbreviation for Advanced Encryption Standard. AES utilizes symmetric key cryptology. It provides strong encryption and is approved by the U.S. Government for protecting sensitive information. See http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips197/fips-197.pdf for more information on the AES encryption standard.

Asymmetric Cryptology
A form of cryptology that implements Key Pairs, in which the Public key portion of the Key Pair is used to encrypt information and the Private key portion is used to decrypt information. Otherwise known as Public Key Cryptology. Open PGP, SSH and SSL all implement Asymmetric Cryptology.

Authentication
A mechanism to positively identify users by requesting credentials, such as a password or digital signature.

Certificate
Certificates are digital identification documents that allow both servers and clients to authenticate each other. A certificate contains information about a company and the organization that signed the certificate (such as Verisign). Certificates are used within SSL connections. See definition of SSL.

Cipher
A mathematical process (algorithm) used to scramble (encrypt) data.

Cryptology
The art and science of keeping data secret.

Decryption
The process of converting encrypted code into understandable information.

Diffie-Hellman/DSS
A standard algorithm used for encrypting information and encoding digital signatures.  DSS is an abbreviation for Digital Signature Standard.  Diffie-Hellman/DSS is one of the valid algorithms available when creating an Open PGP Key Pair in Crypto Studio.

Digital Signature
An electronic signature which is encoded into a document using the sender’s Private key. This signature can be authenticated by the recipient using the sender’s Public key. An authenticated signature will ensure the original content of the document has not been altered by an unauthorized party.

Encryption
The process of converting information into unintelligible code.

FIPS 140-2
The Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) Publication 140-2 is a U.S. government computer security standard used to accredit cryptographic (encryption) modules. GoAnywhere Director and GoAnywhere Services embed a FIPS 140-2 accredited cryptographic module for encrypting data over SSL and SSH communications.

FTPS
Stands for FTP over SSL. FTPS utilizes the SSL security protocol standard for encrypting data over FTP connections. See the definition for SSL.

Hash function
An algorithm for calculating a value based on a block of data. If the data changes in any way, then the hash values will not match when it is recalculated. A hash will protect the integrity of data.

Key
The information needed to encrypt or decrypt data.

Key Alias
A unique hexadecimal value assigned to a key in a Keyring.

Key Pair
A combination of a Private key and its corresponding Public key. Key Pairs are used within Asymmetric Cryptology systems, such as Open PGP, SSH and SSL.

Key Store
A binary file which holds one or more keys. A Key Store is useful for keeping keys organized into one location. Also known as Keyring.

Keyring
The alternative name for Key Store.

Open PGP
A popular asymmetric cryptology standard, originally derived from PGP. The Open PGP standard is described in RFC2440 by the Internet Engineering Task Force (see http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2440.txt).

Passphrase
Alternative name for password. A string of characters (entered by the user or supplied by a program) that is used in an algorithm to encrypt or decrypt information.

PGP
PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) refers to a family of products originally developed by Philip R. Zimmerman in 1991. The PGP product family is owned and trademarked by PGP® Corporation. The Open PGP encryption standard is based on PGP 5.x.

Private Key
The portion of a Key Pair which is used by the owner to decrypt information and to encode digital signatures. The Private key, typically protected by a password, should be kept secret by the owner and NOT shared with trading partners. Also known as a Secret Key.

Public Key
The portion of the Key Pair which is used to encrypt information bound for its owner and to verify signatures made by its owner. The owner’s Public key should be shared with its trading partners.

Public Key Cryptology
The alternative name for Asymmetric Cryptology.

Public Keyring
A type of Keyring which contains Public keys.

RSA
An algorithm used for encrypting information, which was authored by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Len Adleman at MIT; the letters RSA are the initials of their surnames. RSA is one of the valid algorithms available when creating an Open PGP Key Pair in Crypto Studio.

SFTP
SFTP utilizes the SSH program for encrypting data over FTP connections. See the definition for SSH.

SSH
SSH is an abbreviation for Secure Shell. SSH is both a computer program and an associated network protocol designed for encrypting communications between two untrusted hosts over a network. It utilizes Public keys to provide asymmetric cryptology.

SSL
SSL is an abbreviation for Secure Sockets Layer. SSL is a security protocol for encrypting communications between two hosts over a network. SSL utilizes certificates to establish trust between the two hosts. SSL can be used over several network protocols, including FTP, HTTP and Email.

Secret Key
The alternative name for Private key.

Secret Keyring
A type of Keyring that contains Private keys. This type of Keyring should be kept private and NOT be shared with trading partners.

Symmetric Cryptology
A form of cryptology in which a single key can be used to encrypt and decrypt data. The key must be kept secret or the security is compromised. Also known as Secret key cryptology. ZIP password protection and AES encryption are both forms of Symmetric Cryptology.

GoAnywhere Director can be installed onto Windows, Linux, IBM i, AIX (pSeries), UNIX, HP-UX, Mac OS and Solaris platforms.  IBM i is also referred to as System i, iSeries, as400, as/400 and i5.